References in Denmark

The following list of references is not claimed to be complete and is supplemented / revised, as new information emerges.

VET-system, law, regulations & policy

Selected political initiatives to respond to challenges, a.o. answering the challenges of individualization:

  • Mandatory personal mentoring of students since 01.07.2007
  • Limited introductory courses during the VET basic year (“Grundforløbspakker”), VET main law, §§ 18, 50-52, 57 and 60
  • An interministerial campaign group for retention of students in VET with a special focus on bilingual students, with an explicit appreciative and resource-oriented approach (“Fastholdelseskaravanen”, “Brug for alle unge”). Transformed in 2014 to several task forces.
  • Talent management programs, such as Skills (Denmark, Nordic, World), innovation event “Young Enterprise” in the business sector and special elite courses at VET colleges.

Tools & pedagogical methods

  • Nationwide, mandatory virtual tool for individual education planning and documentation: “Elevplan”. User-differentiated access to link the respective student, teacher(s) and trainer(s).
  • Modularization of educations as one of the effects of individualization: Jørgensen, Claus Bo; Nielsen, Torben “Modulisering”, Erhvervsskolernes Forlag, 2007
  • Multi-didactic approaches at VET-colleges. A.o.:
    - Hilde Hiim / Else Hippe “Didaktik for fag- og professionslærere”, Gyldendals Lærerbibliotek, 2005
    -  Roland Hachmann / Peter Holmboe “Flipped Learning”, Praxis – Erhvervsskolernes Forlag, 2014

VET-teacher education & research

  • VET-teacher education, study regulation: ”Diplomuddannelse Erhvervspædagogik”, Aug. 2011
  • Pedagogical and didactical considerations right after the Danish “Reform 2000”: ”Pædagogik og didaktik”, Undervisningsministeriet, 2000
  • Research on the effect of individualism in Denmark: “Unges motivation og læring” v/ Sørensen, Hutters, Katznelson, Juul. Hans Reitzels Forlag, 2013
  • Local example on practice with assessing students´ prior learning, when starting a Danish VET-education: “Kompetencevurdering”, vocational college Mercantec, 2013


  • EVA – The Danish Evaluation Institute, about offers to academically strong students: “Tilbud til stærke elever på erhvervsuddannelserne: Status og erfaringer”, 2011
  • EVA – The Danish Evaluation Institute, about retention in youth education: ”Fastholdelse i uddannelse: Statusnotat 2010”
  • EVA – The Danish Evaluation Institute, about VET schools´ quality assurance: ”Erhvervsskolernes beskrivelse af deres systematiske kvalitetsarbejde”, 2009